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Ghada Refaat

Basic information

Name : Ghada Refaat
Title: Associate Professors of Management Information Systems
Google Schoolar Link
Personal Info: Associate Professors of Management Information Systems (MIS) at Faculty of Commerce & Business Administration

Education

Certificate Major University Year
PhD Philosophy, Information technology Brunel University 2006
Masters Science, Information technology Nottingham University 1999
Diploma Information Engineering Information Technology Institute 1994
Bachelor Electronics and Communication Cairo University 1991

Teaching Experience

Name of Organization Position From Date To Date
Future University in Egypt Associate Professor 01/01/2012 01/01/2018
Graduate School of Education - AUC lecturer 01/06/2011 31/08/2012
Department of Business & Information Systems - French University in Egypt Lecturer 01/09/2008 31/07/2012
USAID Funded Projects Information Systems & Monitoring & Evaluation Director 01/07/1998 31/07/2012

Researches /Publications

Human Computer Interaction Aspects of Enterprise Social Networks: An Empirical Validation of Adoption Model in a Developing Country - 01/0

GHADA REFAAT MOHAMED ELSAID

01/07/2020

This paper suggests an adoption model for Enterprise Social Networks (ESN) based on Human Computer Interaction aspects in a developing country, Egypt. The study starts with an exploratory phase, where semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten of ESN users, from different operation levels, and in two organizations. Thematic analysis of interviews data suggested personal cognitive dimension of ESN adoption, such as: Perceived Value, Privacy, Power Distance Cultural Dimension, Management Support, Interactivity, and Usability. In light of these interview results, an adoption model was built. The model was validated using a survey administered with a convenient sample of 82 permanent employees from different backgrounds and in various managerial levels, in the same two organizations operating in Egypt. The statistical analysis of the model suggests that Interactivity, Perceived Value, Management Support, and Usability were found to have substantial influences on ESN Adoption. The suggested integrated model helps for better understanding of ESN from the users’ perception. This paper contributes with implications for ESN’s researchers, developers, and managers. This research presents a plausible, integrated framework for investigating the target phenomenon, especially for un-explored cultures.

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Context-Aware Adaptive M-Learning: Implicit Indicators of Learning Performance, Perceived Usefulness, and Willingness to Use - 01/1

GHADA REFAAT MOHAMED ELSAID

01/11/2019

Mobile Learning tools suffer from low engagement, and lack of content personalization and adaptation. This imperial study investigates the possible effect on learning performance; perceive usefulness, and willingness to use of undergraduate students when they use an adaptive m-learning tool that personalizes learning material format to the user and device contexts. Assessment was done using implicit measure (dwell time), explicit measure (satisfaction questionnaire), and learning assessment (post test). An experiment was conducted with 31 Egyptian students using the traditional school e-learning system, while half of them were asked to use the context-aware adaptive learning tool. Results suggest that context-based adaptive mobile-learning tools can significantly improved perceived usefulness of learning materials, as well as learners’ willing to use the tools. Practical and theoretical implications were suggested.

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The Intention to Use Mobile Student Portal: A Mobile Human Computer Interaction Study in a University Context in Egypt - 01/1

GHADA REFAAT MOHAMED ELSAID

01/12/2018

Mobile devices are increasingly being used as platforms for interactive services. However, factors affecting adoption of mobile services in some specific contexts, such as student portals, are still underresearched. This paper reports thematic analyses of semistructured interviews conducted with 52 undergraduate users of mobile student portal in a developing country. The results uncover design features affecting the use of mobile student portals, such as (1) Content Sharing, comprising an Integrative Design to share posts from the mobile portal to social media, (2) Personalized Content and Notification, for personalized notification based on student’s academic status, (3) Location-Aware notification, providing location-based updates, (4) User Control, allowing to choose content formats and details level, and (5) Context Switching and Interrupted Behavior, leading to the need for displaying content in small, meaningful chunks to help pick up after interruptions of messages and calls. The findings suggest design recommendations for mobile student portal, in specific.

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Improving Relevance of Information Retrieval Systems and User’s Preferred Search Language - 01/1

GHADA REFAAT MOHAMED ELSAID

01/10/2017

Enhancing relevance of search results is becoming a crucial challenge for search engines. Collection of implicit and explicit feedback as indicators of search result relevancy is currently a growing interest in information systems research. The current study pioneered investigation the users’ preferred search language effect on the relationship between a number of implicit indicators (dwell time, number of clicks, and amount of scrolling) and user explicit rating. Methodology: A lab experiment was conducted included 48 Arabic native speakers divided in 2 groups, where only one group was given the option to select a preferred search language. Implicit feedbacks were collected via recording software, while participants performing a self-pre-defined search task. Implicit data were compared with the explicit rating of search result relevance, completed by the users via a five point scale. The effect of preferred language on the relationship between implicit and explicit data was assessed for the two groups using correlation significance testing. Findings: The study suggested cost-effective method for understanding user behavior in the context of multi- languages search-based recommender systems through the use of implicit feedback. The study verified the power of dwell time, number of clicks, and amount of scrolling in the prediction of search results relevance. The study suggested that this power is strengthened when users are given the option to select a preferred search language. The current results also suggest that using various user feedback within the same context, such as number of clicks and amount of scrolling, provides advantages over using dwell time alone, confirming the prediction strength of these implicit constructs over dwell time. Finally, the present study suggests that the prediction performance of dwell time varies from factual to intellectual task type. The results of the present study can contribute to a improve search result relevance for search-based systems.

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Understanding How Learners Use Massive Open Online Courses and Why They Drop Out: Thematic Analysis of an Interview Study in a Developing Country - 01/0

GHADA REFAAT MOHAMED ELSAID

01/09/2017

This paper presents a qualitative study on Massive Open Online Courses use in a developing world context. Data was collected from 52 undergraduate and postgraduate learners via semi structured interviews. Learners were encouraged to select from various platforms according to their preference, and to actually register to the course as part of a self-learning activity. Interviewing sessions were conducted eight weeks after the participants’ registration, thematic analysis technique was used aiming to reveal their authentic learning experience concerning dropout. The findings support the applicability of a number of suggested factors from previous studies on retention for E-learning in general and for Massive Open Online Courses specifically, such Course Design, Technology Employment, Interactivity and Rapidity. However, results of this research uncover the importance of additional factors such as: Learner Control, where users can design their own long term learning track from various course modules. Novel design factors were also uncovered in this research such as: Integrative Design to comprise learners’ own accounts on web2.0 and social media; as well as, Independent Design, where course’s modules can be taught separately and learners need not to complete an overall course, rather pick modules from various courses. Mobility and Language are identified as important decisive factor for users to dropout/ completion on Massive Open Online Courses. This research also highlights the importance of Diversity and Novelty for this type of E-learning application. The research reveals the Multitasking Behavior of users, leading to the need of Easy to Scan contents. The findings provide a basis for improving the understanding towards reasons for Massive Open Online Courses drop out and suggest a number of practical design recommendations for designers and providers.

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A Cloud Computing-Based Model of E-Commerce Adoption for Developing Countries - 01/0

GHADA REFAAT MOHAMED ELSAID

01/09/2017

E-commerce can play a major role in boosting economics of developing countries, however, in these countries; e-commerce adoption is still under developed. While cloud computing technology uplift e-commerce in some communities, by providing access to low cost internet-based infrastructure; little is known about cloud computing use for e-commerce in developing countries. This paper suggests a cloud computing-based e-commerce adoption model, collecting survey data from managing directors of 175 ICT companies in a developing country. Organization’s awareness of potential benefits and risks of this technology, as well as organization’s technological, business, and manpower resources and compatibility of these resources with cloud computing technologies, were all found to be significant predictors of e-commerce adoption. Governmental support in terms of legal and telecommunication infrastructure, also credibility of local cloud service providers, were both found to be significantly affecting cloud computing-based e-commerce adoption. Small and medium firms were found to be more ready to adopt cloud computing e-commerce, where return on investment was found to be higher when compared with large firms. Firms linked to global customers and international business partners were most likely to spearhead of the cloud e-commerce even if this is not the cheapest option. Practical implications for government, service providers, and business managers were discussed.

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Exploring the Factors Affecting MOOC Retention; A Survey Study - 01/0

GHADA REFAAT MOHAMED ELSAID

Kate Hone

01/04/2016

opportunities to a global audience. However, evidence suggests that only a small proportion of MOOC participants go on to complete their courses and relatively little is understood about the MOOC design and implementation factors that influence retention. This paper reports a survey study of 379 participants enrolled at university in Cairo who were encouraged to take a MOOC of their own choice as part of their development. 122 participants (32.2%) went onto to complete an entire course. There were no significant differences in completion rates by gender, level of study (undergraduate or postgraduate) or MOOC platform. A post-MOOC survey of students' perceptions found that MOOC Course Content was a significant predictor of MOOC retention, with the relationship mediated by the effect of content on the Perceived Effectiveness of the course. Interaction with the instructor of the MOOC was also found to be significant predictor of MOOC retention. Overall these constructs explained 79% of the variance in MOOC retention.

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Understanding Knowledge Management System antecedents of performance impact: Extending the Task-technology Fit Model with intention to share knowledge construct - 01/0

GHADA REFAAT MOHAMED ELSAID

01/01/2015

Little investigations have been made to examine the effect of employees׳ intention to share knowledge on Knowledge Management Systems’ (KMS) use, lack of contribution from users has been listed as a failure factor for KMS. Researchers generally assess KMS by frequency of use, disregarding system impact on employees׳ performance, despite its impact on the system׳s long-term success. This paper contributes to KMS research by extending Task Technology Fit (TTF), a model which is widely employed to study KMS, with the intention to share knowledge construct, in investigating the determinants of KMS performance impact. The paper starts with exploratory study, where interviews were conducted with a sample of KM users to explore possible constructs. In light of the interview results, a research hypothetical model was built integrating system and task characteristics constructs of TTF model. To validate the model, a survey was then conducted with 95 administration and technical staff of different managerial levels, for two different Knowledge Management Systems in two organizations. Intention to share knowledge, task characteristics, perceived Task Technology Fit, KMS characteristics, and utilization were found to have substantial influences on KMS performance impact. Among the key factors, intention to share knowledge was found to be especially important as it positively and significantly affects perceived Task Technology Fit, utilization, and KMS performance impact. The suggested integrated model helps for better understanding of KMS from the perspective of users’ motivation, system design, and tasks. This paper contributes-with academic and practical implications for KMS researchers, developers, and managers.

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The Use of Education Management Information Systems in Higher Education Institutions: An Empirical Investigation of the Effect of Degree of Interactivity. International Journal of Higher Education Management - 01/0

GHADA REFAAT MOHAMED ELSAID

01/01/2015

Technology is capable of revolutionizing the management of higher education institutions and improving services they provide. However, this does not happen in many cases because, either the appropriate technology is not available, or because technology is simply not used. The last decade has seen substantial investments in technology infrastructure for higher education enterprises. Resource constrains and accreditations requirements oblige higher education institutions to set their technology priority and select the most appropriate systems. This paper suggests and empirically evaluates a predicting Higher Education Management Information Systems (HEMIS) use model. Built on well-established information systems user’s behavioural models, the model suggested by this research hypothesizes that degree of interactivity have significant effect on HEMIS use, where user’s attitude and intension to use are mediator factors. The paper reports the findings of an experiential survey study, conducted over 110 higher education administration staff of different managerial levels, in 7 different higher education entities, looking at their use of three types of HEMIS. Structural Equation Modelling is employed to evaluate the goodness-to-fit of the suggested model. The results provide empirical evidence on how interactivity affects user behaviour in HEMIS context. Furthermore, the study reports some interesting findings concerning the use of HEMIS highly interactive tools within the environment of higher education entities. Implications and suggestions for future research for both researchers and practitioners are discussed.

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Card Sorting Assessing User attitude in E-Learning - 01/0

GHADA REFAAT MOHAMED ELSAID

01/01/2014

Various undergraduate and post graduate educational bodies, now a day, employ blended learning systems to complement the face to face communication between educator and learner. While E-learning tools in general have been found to improve access to resources, these tools need to be reliable and usable; the ease of use of E-learning would have a meaningful impact on the learning experience.[1] This paper investigates learners’ perception of quality and willingness to use of E-learning environments. It also explores the attitude of users from two different cultural groups towards a number of E-learning sites. The paper aims to reveal some of the perception of quality for these groups of users in interacting with learning virtual communities. In September/ October 2013, series of card sorting sessions were conducted with number of learners enrolled in a joint venture European-Arab Master Program. In the individual sessions, each participant was asked to look at card of selected E-Learning sites, and to choose a single criterion by which the E-learning main pages could be differentiated from one another. Cards were then sorted based on different categories under each criterion. Participants repeated sorting the cards according to criteria and categories they generated. A second round of sorting sessions were conducted by the same participants, where they sorted the same cards according to the Willingness to Use criterion, and provided a reason for the sorting decisions made. The analysis of the card sorting sessions reveals some interesting findings concerning interface elements which seem to be salient for users in E-learning environment, such as: Interface Comprehensibility and Obviousness, Content Usefulness, and Site Affiliation and Reputation. Some differences in quality perception were also found between the two cultural groups. This paper makes a contribution to universal access in HCI by describing the quality perception, preferences, and general attitude for different group of users in the context of E-learning environment.

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Young Egyptians Use of Social Networks and the January 2011 Revolution - 01/0

GHADA REFAAT MOHAMED ELSAID

01/01/2013

The 2011 Egyptian protests began on Tuesday 25 January in Tahrir, one of Cairo’s biggest squares. On January 25 and 26, the Egyptian government blocked Twitter in Egypt and later Face book was blocked as well.[1] Most observers of the Egyptian scene at that time, claimed that the responsible governmental authorities did this, in an attempt to stop mobilization for anti-government protests.[2] A report in March 2011[3] highlights a significant increase in the use of the Internet in Egypt in the wake of the January 25 protests. "A large increase in the number of web surfers and users of social networking sites reported to change the pattern of use and the interests of the of the Internet contents”. According to the report, the number of Internet users in Egypt prior to January 25 was 21.2 million users, increased by almost 9% after this date to reach 23.1 million in two months. The time Egyptian users spent online was doubled from 900 to 1800 minutes per months after 25 January 2011. Still, Egypt's Internet penetration rate is less than 25%. This paper investigates cultural issues in human computer interaction. The paper explores the specific experiences of young Egyptian Internet users and their interaction through social media during and after the Egyptian protest in 25 January 2011. The paper aims to reveal some the cultural characteristics of this user group in interacting with the Internet.

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Language Choice Online: Globalization and Identity in Egypt - 01/0

GHADA REFAAT MOHAMED ELSAID

Mark Warschauer and Ayman Zohry

01/06/2006

The dominance of English on the Internet in the medium's early years caused great consternation about a possible threat to local languages and cultures. Though the hegemony of English online has since weakened, there is still concern about how English and other languages interact online, but there has been almost no research on this issue. This paper combines linguistic analysis, a survey, and interviews to examine English and Arabic language use in online communications by a group of young professionals in Egypt. The study indicates that, among this group, English is used overwhelmingly in Web use and in formal e-mail communication, but that a Romanized version of Egyptian Arabic is used extensively in informal e-mail messages and online chats. This online use of English and Arabic is analyzed in relation to broader social trends of language, technology, globalization, and identity.

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Culture and E-Commerce: An Exploration of the Perceptions and Attitudes of Egyptian Internet Users. - 01/0

GHADA REFAAT MOHAMED ELSAID

Kate Hone

01/06/2005

This paper examines the perceptions and attitudes that Egyptian users hold towards electronic shopping sites. Internet sites are globally available, opening up huge potential markets for online retailers. However, it remains unclear whether sites designed for the US or European markets will be acceptable in other cultures. This paper describes an exploratory card sorting study conducted with Egyptian consumers. The study was designed to examine the e-commerce interface features that are most salient to this user group and to explore how these relate to user intentions to engage in internet shopping. The results support the role of site familiarity in predicting purchase intentions within this cultural setting.

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Awards

Award Donor Date
Future University in Egypt Academic Service Award (2018) - FUE - Egypt Future University in Egypt 2018
Main Reviewer for papers of the International Conference on Information Systems 2015. Main Reviewer for papers of the International Conference on Information Systems 2015. 2015
Academy for Education Development (AED) Employee Yearly Award Academy of Educational Development - AED - United States 2004
Master of Science Award School of Computer Science and Information Technology - Nottingham University - United Kingdom 1999
Software Skills Development Program Diploma Award Information Technology Institute - Cairo 1994

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