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Staff Researches

Ehab Rasmy

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems of cilostazol for oral and parenteral administration

Ehab Rasmy Bendas Wasef

Dina B Mahmoud, Marwa H Shukr

International journal of pharmaceutics

2014

The current investigation was aimed to improve the solubility of poorly soluble drug, cilostazol (CLZ). Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) composed of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant for both oral and parenteral administration of CLZ was formulated. The components for SNEDDS were identified by solubility studies, and pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were plotted to identify the efficient self-emulsification regions. The optimum formula, composed of Capryol 90 as an oil phase, Cremophor EL as a surfactant, and Transcutol HP as a co-surfactant in a ratio of 19.8:30.5:49.7 by weight, was able to solubilize CLZ 2000 times higher than its solubility in water. This formula was able to form grade “A” nanoemulsion when diluted with water, resulted in emulsification time of 50 ± 1.1 s, particle size of 14.3 nm, PDI of 0.5 and % transmittance was 97.40% ± 0.65. It showed excellent in vitro dissolution of 93.1% and 81.5% after 5 min in 0.3% sodium lauryl sulphate solution and phosphate buffer pH 6.4, respectively when compared with the marketed tablet formulation and drug suspension as the tablets showed only 44.3% and 9.9% while CLZ suspension showed 33.9% and 8.8% in 0.3% sodium lauryl sulphate solution and phosphate buffer pH 6.4, respectively. It was found to be robust to dilution, thermodynamically stable with low viscosity values of 14.20 ± 0.35 cP. Invivo study revealed significant increase in bioavailability of CLZ in rabbits to 3.94 fold compared with the marketed tablet formulation after oral administration. This formula could be sterilized by autoclaving and did not cause significant hemolysis to human blood which indicates its safety for intravenous administration with a 1.12 fold increase in bioavailability compared with its oral administration. Our study illustrated the potential use of SNEDDS of poorly soluble CLZ orally, and its successful administration of parenterally when required in acute cases of myocardial and cerebral infarction.

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Pharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic evaluation of a novel fast dissolving film formulation of flupentixol dihydrochloride

Ehab Rasmy Bendas Wasef

Ahmed Abdelbary, Afaf A Ramadan, Dalia A Mostafa

AAPS PharmSciTech

2014

The objective of the present study was to develop fast dissolving oral film of the antipsychotic drug, flupentixol dihydrochloride, to enhance its bioavailability, optimize its therapeutic effect when used to treat depression with anxiety, and increase the convenience and compliance by the mentally ill, developmentally disable, elderly, and pediatric patients. Six formulae were prepared with different concentrations of water-soluble polymers vis. hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC E5) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) by solvent casting technique. The prepared films were subjected to characterization for folding endurance, weight variations, thickness, disintegration time, drug release pattern, and drug content. Physical compatibility between the drug and excipients was guaranteed in the selected formulation (2% HPMC) by means of differential scanning calorimetry analysis and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. This formulation revealed high stability after testing according to the International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. In vivo studies based on single phase parallel design were carried out for the optimized formulation in healthy human volunteers. The concentration of flupentixol dihydrochloride in plasma samples was analyzed by a developed validated LC-MS/MS assay method and the pharmacokinetic parameters of the established formulation were compared with the commercially available oral tablets. Faster rate of absorption of flupentixol could be obtained from the oral film formulation and the relative bioavailability was found to be 151.06% compared to the marketed product.

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Hydroxychloroquine niosomes: a new trend in topical management of oral lichen planus

Ehab Rasmy Bendas Wasef

Hamoud Abdullah, Mohamed HM El-Komy, Mohamed AA Kassem

International journal of pharmaceutics

2013

The work aimed at studying a novel topical niosomal gel formulation of hydroxychloroquine for the management of oral lichen planus. Niosomes have been reported as conceivable vesicles to deliver drug molecules to the desired mucous membrane or skin layers. Hydroxychloroquine niosomes were designed using different methods of preparation. Tween 20 and cholesterol in molar ratio (1:0.5) were used. The prepared systems were characterized for entrapment efficiency, particle size and in vitro drug release. Different factors affecting the encapsulation of hydroxychloroquine in niosomes were studied vs. varying the type of surfactant, the cholesterol:surfactant molar ratio and the amount of the drug. The selected noisome formulation was dispersed in different gel formulations and evaluated according to the in vitro drug release and the physical stability. The results showed that the type of surfactant, cholesterol ratio and incorporated amount of drug altered the entrapment efficiency and the in vitro release of hydroxychloroquine from niosomes. The optimum formulation was prepared by reverse phase evaporation technique using Brij 98:cholesterol molar ratio (1:1.5) and containing 20 mg of hydroxychloroquine and incorporated in 20% w/v Pluronic F-127 gel. A double-blind, controlled clinical study was performed using two groups of patients. Group A (n = 11) who received hydroxychloroquine niosomal gel formulation, one application-a-day over 4 months showed 64.28% reduction in the size of lesions and the average score of pain was reduced from “4” to “1”. Compared to placebo group B (n = 5), who showed only 3.94% reduction in the lesion size and the average score of pain was remained “3”. Our results suggest that these niosomal formulations could constitute a promising approach for the topical treatment of oral lichen planus in short time with less side effects and no recurrence after stopping the treatment.

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Enhanced transdermal delivery of salbutamol sulfate via ethosomes

Ehab Rasmy Bendas Wasef

Mina I. Tadros

AAPS PharmSciTech

2007

The main objective of the present work was to compare the transdermal delivery of salbutamol sulfate (SS), a hydrophilic drug used as a bronchodilator, from ethosomes and classic liposomes containing different cholesterol and dicetylphosphate concentrations. All the systems were characterized for shape, particle size, and entrapment efficiency percentage, by image analysis optical microscopy or transmission electron microscopy, laser diffraction, and ultracentrifugation, respectively. In vitro drug permeation via a synthetic semipermeable membrane or skin from newborn mice was studied in Franz diffusion cells. The selected systems were incorporated into Pluronic F 127 gels and evaluated for both drug permeation and mice skin deposition. In all systems, the presence of spherical-shaped vesicles was predominant. The vesicle size was significantly decreased (P<.05) by decreasing cholesterol concentration and increasing dicetylphosphate and ethanol concentrations. The entrapment efficiency percentage was significantly increased (P<.05) by increasing cholesterol, dicetylphosphate, and ethanol concentrations. In vitro permeation studies of the prepared gels containing the selected vesicles showed that ethosomal systems were much more efficient at delivering SS into mice skin (in terms of quantity and depth) than were liposomes or aqueous or hydroalcoholic solutions.

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Development and validation of sensitive and rapid UPLC–MS/MS method for quantitative determination of daclatasvir in human plasma: Application to a bioequivalence study

Ehab Rasmy Bendas Wasef

Mamdouh R Rezk, Emad B Basalious, Iman A Karim

Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis

2016

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Two different approaches for the prediction of in vivo plasma concentration-time profile from in vitro release data of once daily formulations of diltiazem hydrochloride

Ehab Rasmy Bendas Wasef

Archives of pharmacal research

2009

The aim of this study was to employ two different mathematical approaches: first, a convolution approach using computer software; second, a mathematical calculation exploiting Wagner-Nelson calculation to predict in vivo plasma concentration — time profile from the in vitro release study for the once daily formulations of a model drug diltiazem hydrochloride. The once daily extended release tablets (120 mg) were prepared by the wet granulation technique. Ethanol or ethanolic solutions of ethylcellulose (N22), were used as granulating agents along with hydrophilic matrix polymers like hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (K 15M). The granules showed satisfactory flow properties, compressibility, moisture content and drug content. All the tablet formulations showed acceptable properties and complied with pharmacopeial limits. The in vitro drug release study revealed that formula F7-T which contains drug: HPMC ratio 1:1 and 20 mg of ethylcellulose was able to sustain the drug release for 24 h and satisfied the USP dissolution limits. Fitting the in vitro drug release data to Korsmeyer-Peppas equation indicated that the mechanism of drug release could be zero-order. The capsule formulation F14-C which consists of drug: HPMC ratio 1:2, 12 mg of ethylcellulose and 20 mg of polyox 100 showed in vitro drug release similar to the tablet F7-T using the similarity factor (f2). The mechanism of drug release could be coupled diffusion, and polymer matrix relaxation. The percent dissolved data from the two formulations were used as input function to predict the in vivo plasma data by the two approaches (Convolution by Kinetica® software and Wagner-Nelson calculation). The two methods were validated by prediction of plasma data from in vitro release data of FDA approved 300 mg extended release capsule. Prediction errors were estimated for Cmax and area under the curve (AUC) to determine the validity of the methods. The percent prediction error for each parameter is not exceeding 15%.

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Leaky enteric coating on ranitidine hydrochloride beads: Dissolution and prediction of plasma data

Ehab Rasmy Bendas Wasef

James W Ayres

European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics

2008

The present research is based on the hypothesis that leaky enteric-coated pellets formulations are able to provide sustained input for drugs that have an absorption window, such as ranitidine hydrochloride, without jeopardizing their bioavailability. Leaky enteric-coated pellets formulations are defined as enteric-coated pellets that allow some of the drug to be released from the formulation in gastric fluid. Different approaches to making leaky enteric-coated pellets were investigated using extrusion–spheronization followed by spray coating. Leaky enteric coats were formulated using a commonly used enteric polymer, Eudragit® L 30 D-55, combined with soluble compounds including lactose, PEG 8000 and surfactants (Span 60 (hydrophobic) or Tween 80 (hydrophilic)). The rate of drug release from the formulations in simulated gastric fluid can be tailored by varying the additive’s amount or type. All leaky enteric-coated formulations studied completely released the drugs within 30 min after changing dissolution medium to phosphate buffer, pH 6. Predictions of plasma concentration–time profiles of the model drug ranitidine hydrochloride from leaky enteric-coated pellets in fasted conditions and from immediate-release formulations were performed using computer simulations. Simulation results are consistent with a hypothesis that leaky enteric-coated pellets formulations provide sustained input for drugs shown to have an absorption window without decreasing bioavailability. The sustained input results from the combined effects of the formulation and GI transit effects on pellets. The present research demonstrates a new application of knowledge about gastrointestinal transit effects on drug formulations. It also shows that enteric-coating polymers have new applications in areas other than the usual enteric-coated formulations. The hypothesis that a leaky enteric-coated pellets formulation may maintain or increase the bioavailability of drugs that have a window of absorption is still to be confirmed by further in vivo studies.

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Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research

Ehab Rasmy Bendas Wasef

A Mohamed, S Mohamed, Gehad A Abdel-Jaleel, Samar M Nasr-Alla

Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research

2015

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Instantaneous enteric nano-encapsulation of omeprazole: pharmaceutical and pharmacological evaluation

Ehab Rasmy Bendas Wasef

Aly A Abdelbary

International journal of pharmaceutics

2014

Recently, great attention has been paid to nanocapsules. The interest of these structures is due to their promising applications as drug delivery systems. The objective of this study was to develop novel enteric coating technique based on instantaneous encapsulation of the acid-labile drug, omeprazole in innovative enteric nanocapsules. Omeprazole enteric nanocapsules were formulated by varying the type and amount of the enteric polymer. The particle size (PS), polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) values of the prepared enteric nanocapsules were determined. A full 21 × 31 factorial design was used for planning and analysis of the experimental trials to select the optimized formulation. The highest desirability value was 0.7463 for formula E3 (containing 200 mg hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP)). The stability of omeprazole was reflected by the absence of the exothermal peak when the drug was encapsulated as detected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms. In vitro drug release study confirmed the USP specifications required to meet the key formulation characteristics of gastro-resistance. In vivo pharmacological assessment showed that the optimized nanocapsules were able to protect rat stomach against ulcer formation compared to the aqueous suspension of the drug which showed less significant protection.

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Bendas ER, Tadros MI. Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Salbutamol Sulfate via Ethosomes. AAPS PharmSciTech

Ehab Rasmy Bendas Wasef

2007

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Quantification of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir in human plasma by UPLC-MS/MS method: Application to fasting and fed bioequivalence studies

Ehab Rasmy Bendas Wasef

Mamdouh R Rezk, , Emad B Basalious, Iman A Karim

Journal of Chromatography B

2016

A rapid and sensitive LC–MS/MS method was developed, optimized and validated for quantification of sofosbuvir (SF) and ledipasvir (LD) in human plasma using eplerenone as an internal standard (IS). Analytes and IS were extracted from plasma by simple liquid–liquid extraction technique using methyl tertiary butyl ether. The prepared samples were chromatographed on Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column. Separation was done using a mobile phase formed of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min. The Xevo TQD LC–MS/MS was operated under the multiple-reaction monitoring mode using electrospray ionization. A full validation of the method was performed according to the FDA guidelines. Linearity was found to be in the range of 0.25–3500 ng/ml for SF and 5–2000 ng/ml for LD. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy results were within the acceptable limits. A short run time of 2 min allows analysis of more than 400 plasma samples per day. The developed method was successfully applied to both fasting and fed bioequivalence studies in healthy human volunteers.

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Intranasal Microemulsion of Sildenafil Citrate: In Vitro Evaluation and In Vivo Pharmacokinetic Study in Rabbits

Ehab Rasmy Bendas Wasef

Ahmed H. Elshafeey, Osama H. Mohamed

AAPS PharmSciTech

2009

The purpose of the present study was to prepare intranasal delivery system of sildenafil citrate and estimate its relative bioavailability after nasal administration in rabbits to attain rapid onset of action with good efficacy at lower doses. Sildenafil citrate saturated solubility was determined in different solvents, cosolvents, and microemulsion systems. For nasal application, sildenafil citrate was formulated in two different systems: the first was a cosolvent system (S3) of benzyl alcohol/ethanol/water/Transcutol/taurodeoxy cholate/Tween 20 (0.5:16.8:47.7:15.9:1:18.1% w/w). The second was a microemulsion system (ME6) containing Oleic acid: Labrasol/Transcutol/water (8.33:33.3:16.66:41.66% w/w). The prepared systems were characterized in relation to their clarity, particle size, viscosity, pH, and nasal ciliotoxicity. In vivo pharmacokinetic performance of the selected system ME6 (with no nasal ciliotoxicity) was evaluated in a group of six rabbits in a randomized crossover study and compared to the marketed oral tablets. The targeted solubility (>20 mg/ml) of sildenafil citrate was achieved with cosolvent systems S1, S3, and S5 and with microemulsion systems ME3–ME6. The saturated solubility of sildenafil citrate in cosolvent system S3 and microemulsion system ME6 were 22.98 ± 1.26 and 23.79 ± 1.16 mg/ml, respectively. Microemulsion formulation ME6 showed shorter tmax (0.75 h) and higher AUC(0-∞) (1,412.42 ng h/ml) compared to the oral tablets which showed tmax equals 1.25 h and AUC(0-∞) of 1,251.14 ng h/ml after administration to rabbits at dose level of 5 mg/kg. The relative bioavailability was 112.89%. In conclusion, the nasal absorption of sildenafil citrate microemulsion was found to be fast, indicating the potential of nasal delivery instead of the conventional oral administration of such drug.

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